By the end of the 19th century, the medical community still strongly believed that the disease was caused by some body disorder, and the generally accepted method of treatment was the release of blood.
Psychiatrists and psychiatrists such as Elvud Wuster and Sigmund Freud are interested in the question of the psyche. Mental illnesses had by then been perceived as weakness and something that a mentally strong person would never succumb to.
The First World War, however, caused a dramatic shift in the focus of the doctors on somatic explanations for the disease. The number of soldiers who returned with post-traumatic disputes contested the assumption that there are “healthy” and “crazy” people.
Instead, doctors began to accept that the conditions in which people live and stress are important factors of mental and physical health. Psychiatrists, who previously worked primarily in mental hospitals, began to take care of community patients, explains Robert L. Katin, psychology professor.
“The war has finally made it possible to accept the psychological causes of health problems,” he says.
Still Freud, during which time psychotherapy and psychoanalysis were at the beginning, explained that there was “a dark force in people who aspire to destruction and that a person sees pleasure in it,” explains Kamila Robiks, professor of history at the Cornell University.
Today, experts recognize that social and biological factors contribute to mental illness. Psychotherapy also continues to develop more effective therapies not only for post-traumatic disorders, but also for anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and eating disorders.